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Caption/Description: A displaced Muslim girl takes shelter at a destroyed mosque after fleeing a government offensive against the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. war crimes guide
Caption/Description: A displaced Muslim girl takes shelter at a destroyed mosque after fleeing a government offensive against the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. war crimes guide

A displaced Muslim girl takes shelter at a destroyed mosque after fleeing a government offensive against the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. Image: Courtesy of Ron Haviv, VII


» Guide


Download: GIJN Reporter’s Guide to Investigating War Crimes

Investigating War Crimes: Resources and Tipsheets

Below you’ll find a link to useful resources produced by GIJN as well as a running list of tipsheets on specific topics related to war crimes and atrocities.

GIJN has put together a comprehensive war crimes reporting resource list of webinars and lectures; databases and organizations; case studies and reports; books, academic papers, and podcasts; as well as other guides and tipsheets.

An accurate understanding of the applicable laws by journalists can ensure and improve credible reporting on atrocities, and raise awareness of potential violations. Here’s a condensed explainer on the legal issues related to war conduct excepted from Dr. Claire Simmons’ full chapter in the Reporter’s Guide to Investigating War Crimes.

Webinars and Lectures

TopicOrganizerSpeakers namesSummary
The International Criminal Court: A Conversation with Judge Silvia Fernández de Gurmendi.The International Criminal CourtJudge Silvia Fernández de GurmendiThis webinar, hosted by the New America Foundation, discusses the work of the International Criminal Court (ICC) and its efforts to prosecute war crimes.
The Responsibility to Protect: A Conversation with Gareth EvansThe Carnegie Council for Ethics in International AffairsGareth EvansThis webinar, hosted by the Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, discusses the principle of the Responsibility to Protect and its implications for preventing and responding to war crimes.
What in the World…is Happening in Ukraine?American Society of International LawProfessor Oona Hathaway from Yale Law School and Victor Rud from the Ukrainian American Bar Association.This panel discussion, hosted by the American Society of International Law, explores the future of war crimes prosecutions and the challenges that lie ahead.
Ongoing Rohingya Genocide: Myanmar military defies provisional measures ordered by International Court of Justice.Burmese Rohingya Organisation UKAkila Radhakrishnan (Moderator), President, Global Justice Center. Tun Khin, President of Burmese Rohingya Organisation UK. Yanghee Lee, Founder Special Advisory Council for Myanmar, former UN Special Rapporteur on Myanmar. Khin Ohmar, Chairperson, Advisory board Progressive Voice. M. Arsalan Suleman, Foley Hoag, legal counsel to The Gambia in its case against Myanmar at the International Court of Justice.This webinar discuss the “Ongoing Rohingya genocide Myanmar military defies provisional measures ordered by International Court of Justice, it provides an opportunity to hear from some leading Rohingya, Burmese and international experts on the scope for justice and accountability for the Rohingya, and all people in Myanmar.
Accountability for War Crimes: Past, Present, and FuturePilecki-Institut BerlinLecture: William Schabas
Commentary: Karolina Wierczyńska
Moderator: Dominika Uczkiewicz
In this lecture, William Anthony, a Canadian academic specializing in international criminal and human rights law, defines war crimes, types, and distinctions, and gives instances of modern war crimes across the globe. He also explains the structure of war crimes prosecution.
History of the Law of War on LandICRCHoward S. Levie is Professor Emeritus of Law, Saint Louis University Law School, and Adjunct Professor of International Law, U.S. Naval War College. He is also Colonel (ret.), Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Army. Lecture: The article discusses the historical evolution of the law of war on land, focusing on efforts to make land warfare more humane. In ancient times, there were no humanitarian considerations, and the winner in battle took everything from the loser, including their lives and belongings. Over time, some civilizations adopted limited practices like ransom or absorption of prisoners into their own armies. The first attempt to lay down specific rules for humane treatment in war was the Lieber Code in 1863, followed by various international conferences that led to the development of conventions and protocols. These agreements addressed the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and limitations on the use of certain weapons, aiming to mitigate the inhumane effects of warfare. However, non-compliance by some nations remains a challenge.
How Are War Crimes Prosecuted?Chatham HouseChanu Peiris: Assistant Director, International Law ProgrammeExplaining what war crimes are and how, in the circumstances of Ukraine, could war crimes be prosecuted.
Electronic Evidence of War CrimesCouncil of EuropeEliot Higgins, founder of Bellingcat talks about using open source and social media investigation technique to document the war crimes in Ukraine.
Ukrainian Survivors Reveal how Russian Soldiers Use Sex Attacks 'as a Weapon of War'Sky NewsOn the one-year anniversary of Russia's invasion of Ukraine, the Sky News Daily podcast spoke to women who were victims of sexual violence at the hands of Putin's forces.
Peace and Justice: Sexual Violence in the DRCBBCMore than a decade after the UN raised the alarm on the scale of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, sexual violence remains a persistent issue. Congolese journalist Ruth Omar investigates the complex issues that continue to feed the problem, and meets local activists fighting for change.

Databases and Organizations

International Humanitarian Law DatabasesThe ICRC’s International Humanitarian Law Databases are a searchable set of three databases containing IHL-related resources. Users can search the three databases collectively or individually to find and access documents related to IHL norms in both treaty and customary law, as well as their application, implementation, and interpretation.
UN Office on Genocide PreventionThe purpose of the UN Office on Genocide Prevention aims at informing and advising the work of religious leaders and actors, as well as other relevant players, and providing options and recommendations for ways in which they can contribute to preventing incitement to violence.
Costs of WarThe Costs of War project is a team of over 60 scholars, legal experts, human rights practitioners, and physicians, which began its work in 2010. They use research and a public website to facilitate debate about the costs of the post-9/11 wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and related violence in Pakistan, Somalia, Syria and elsewhere.
List of the Human Rights Council-mandated Investigative BodiesThis is the list of the 37 investigative bodies mandated by the Human Rights Council. They have taken numerous forms since the Council was created in 2006, including fact-finding missions and commissions of inquiry. Most have been established to investigate alleged violations in specific countries. A full list of current and past mandates can be found below.
Radar Interference TrackerThe Radar Interference Tracker (RIT) is a new tool created by Ollie Ballingerthat which allows anyone to search for and potentially locate active military radar systems anywhere on earth.
TRIAL InternationalTRIAL International is a non-governmental organization fighting impunity for international crimes and supporting victims in their quest for justice. It provides legal assistance to victims, litigates cases, develops local capacity and pushes the human rights agenda forward.
Eyewitness to AtrocitiesAs legal and technological experts, eyeWitness recognises the value of placing the technology needed to verify photos and video in the hands of human rights defenders.
Clooney Foundation for JusticeGathers evidence of mass human rights abuses, provides free legal support to victims and works to ensure that perpetrators are held to account. It is actively investigating war crimes in Ukraine.
Amnesty InternationalDoes research and campaigns, to help fight abuses of human rights worldwide.
The UN's Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to ProtectThe Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect has developed a Framework of Analysis to identify some of the main risk factors for atrocity crimes.
International Commission on Missing PersonsICMP works with governments, civil society organizations, justice institutions, international organizations and others throughout the world to address the issue of people who have gone missing as a result of armed conflict, human rights abuses, disasters, organized crime, irregular migration and other causes.
The International Criminal Court (ICC)​The International Criminal Court (ICC) investigates and, where warranted, tries individuals charged with the gravest crimes of concern to the international community: genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and the crime of aggression. On its website, you can find court records, a case law database, reports, factsheets, and a resource library.
The Diakonia International Humanitarian Law CentreThe Diakonia International Humanitarian Law Centre promotes respect for the laws of war through independent research, advice, and advocacy worldwide. The team also offers a page on their website dedicated to resources.
International Court of JusticeThe International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
The Murad Code projectsThe Murad Code project is a global consultative initiative aimed at building and supporting a community of better practice for, with and concerning survivors of systematic and conflict-related sexual violence (“SCRSV”). Its key objective is to respect and support survivors’ rights and to ensure work with survivors to investigate, document and record their experiences is safe, ethical and effective in upholding their human rights.
SEMA, the Global Network of Victims and Survivors to End Wartime Sexual ViolenceSEMA, the Global Network of Victims and Survivors to End Wartime Sexual Violence, currently represents survivors of conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) from 26 countries ranging from Africa and South America to the Middle East and Europe. SEMA provides a safe place for them to share the experiences that have for so long been hidden and ignored, call for the changes needed to end the violence and achieve justice.
The United States Institute of PeaceThe United States Institute of Peace is a national, nonpartisan, independent institute, founded by Congress and dedicated to the proposition that a world without violent conflict is possible, practical and essential for U.S. and global security. In conflict zones abroad, the Institute works with local partners to prevent, mitigate, and resolve violent conflict. To reduce future crises and the need for costly interventions, USIP works with governments and civil societies to build local capacities to manage conflict peacefully. The Institute pursues its mission by linking research, policy, training, analysis and direct action to support those who are working to build a more peaceful, inclusive world.
Collective Awareness to Unexploded OrdnanceCAT-UXO aims to bring together the explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) community in order to collate information and awareness on UXO and explosive hazards currently distributed throughout the world. By gathering this knowledge via social media and allowing access by technical personnel (including EOD operators, Military, Police, NGOs, divers, dog handlers, medics and mine risk managers) individuals worldwide can utilise the experience of others to prevent further injury and death. The non-profit also runs an Explosive Hazard database, obtained from varying open source information and individuals.
Human Rights WatchHuman Rights Watch investigates and reports on abuses happening in all corners of the world. It has a team that roughly 550 plus people of 70-plus nationalities who are country experts, lawyers, journalists, and others who work to protect the most at risk, from vulnerable minorities and civilians in wartime, to refugees and children in need. It directs its advocacy towards governments, armed groups and businesses, pushing them to change or enforce their laws, policies and practices.
Humanitarian Law CenterThe Humanitarian Law Center supports post-Yugoslav societies in promotion of the rule of law and acceptance of the legacy of mass human rights violations, and therefore in establishing the criminal responsibility of the perpetrators, serving justice, and preventing recurrence.
The Clooney Foundation for JusticeThe Clooney Foundation for Justice (CFJ) advocates for justice through accountability for human rights abuses around the world. It believes that justice means fighting for the rights of individuals unfairly targeted by oppressive governments through the courts: the foundation does that through its TrialWatch program, the first initiative in the world that monitors criminal trials globally and defends the rights of individuals who are unfairly imprisoned.
International Commission on Missing PersonsCMP’s Online Inquiry Center (OIC) is a tool to provide information or obtain information about a missing person. It is an online resource that can be accessed by families of the missing and others.
The Argentine Forensic Anthropology TeamA Buenos Aires-based NGO that applies forensic, scientific techniques to the investigation, search, recovery, determination of cause of death, identification, and restitution of missing persons.
Human Rights CenterThe Human Rights Center at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law conducts research on war crimes and other serious violations of international humanitarian law and human rights. Using evidence-based methods and innovative technologies, it supports efforts to hold perpetrators accountable and to protect vulnerable populations.
Who Was in is a free, public database of police, military and other security and defence forces. It was created and is run by Security Force Monitor, an investigative research project based at the Human Rights Institute at Columbia Law School in New York.
The SecurityA non-profit research group that analyzes thousands of public records to create a simple searchable database of the commanders and the command structures, locations, and areas of operations of security force units and investigate their potential connections to alleged human rights violations.
MnemonicMnemonic works globally to help human rights defenders effectively use digital documentation of human rights violations and international crimes to support advocacy, justice and accountability.
Glan airstrike databaseGLAN is an independent organisation made up of legal practitioners, investigative journalists and academics. It identifies and pursues legal actions that promote accountability for human rights violations occurring overseas by working in partnership with other international and local grassroots organisations.

Case Studies and Reports

Sexual Violence
Gendered Crimes during the Lebanese Civil Wars by Legal Worldwide ReportLebanon
How to Responsibly Report War-Replated Sexual Violence by Human Rights First GuideGlobal
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence: The Case for Expertise and Professionalism in Investigations by Just for Conflict ReportGlobal
UN: Sexual Violence a ‘Tactic of War’ by Human Rights Watch ReportGlobal
They have suffered something so terrible, their eyes will always haunt you by Christina Lamb StoryIraq
The war inscribed in the body by National Center
of Historical Memory (Spanish)
ReportGlobal ( Spanish)
The Bosnian war baby still searching for answers by the Guardian StoryBosnia
A war on women
As Nigeria battled insurgents by Reuters
In northern Ethiopia, recent victims of mass rape and other war crimes call on the international community to hold perpetrators to account by New Lines Magazine StoryEthiopia
Conflict-Related Sexual Violence by the UNReportGlobal
Banned WeaponsType
How We Created a Virtual Crime Scene to Investigate Syria’s Chemical Attack by the New York TimesStory Explainer
The Future of Artificial Intelligence — Should lethal autonomous weapons be banned? By Human Rights WatchReportUkraine
Stopping Killer Robots. Country Positions on Banning Fully Autonomous Weapons and Retaining Human Control by Human Rights Watch ReportGlobal
"The Dark Side of Drones: American UAVs Have Already Been Used for Surveillance and May Soon Be Weaponized" by Wired StoryGlobal
Made in France by DiscloseStoryYemen, France,
Finding the Missing
Syria: Families of ‘Disappeared’ Deserve Answers — UN Proposal Offers Promising Pathway by Human Rights Watch ReportsSyria
The Investigative Brigade by Pascale Bonnefoy MirallesBookChile
Hunting Human Rights Criminals in Post-Pinochet Chile by the BBCStoryLibya
A Syrian Woman Who Lost Five of Her Six Brothers to War Is Campaigning for Justice for Detainees by New lines Magazine StorySyria
UN Syria Commission of Inquiry: Member States must seize moment to establish mechanism for missing persons by the U.N ReportSyria
Russia could be charged in court with environmental damage caused by its war in Ukraine by ImpakteranalysisUkraine
How Syria's Decade-Long War Has Left a Toxic Environmental Legacy by Time MagazinestorySyria
What's the environmental impact of modern war by the GuardiananalysisGlobal
Environmental Apartheid in Palestine by IMEUstoryPalestine
Attacks Against Civilians
"The Uncounted" by Azmat Khan and Anand Gopal - published in The New York Times MagazineStoryIraq /US
"The Kill Team" by Mark Boal - published in Rolling Stone. This story investigates the gruesome acts committed by a US Army unit in Afghanistan by the NYT StoryAfghanistan
Clues to the Fate of Five Damaged Cultural Heritage Sites in Ukraine by BellingcatStoryUkraine
"Myanmar's Killing fields by PBS StoryMyanmar
Russia, Ukraine & International Law: On Occupation, Armed Conflict and Human Rights by Human Rights Watch ReportUkraine, Russia
How an Israeli Raid on a Safe House Ended With Civilians Killed by the NYTStoryPalestine
Israel/OPT: Investigate war crimes during August offensive on Gaza by Amnesty InternationalReportPalestine
12 Hours. 4 Syrian Hospitals Bombed. One Culprit: Russia by the NYTStorySyria
What Oil, Satellite Technology and Iraq can Tell us About Pollution by Bellingcat Story
20 Days in Mariupol by the the Associated Press StoryUkraine
Journalists uncovered the murder of civilians thanks to stolen mobile phone by I-StoriesStoryUkraine
Yemen Conflict: The analysis of a ‘war crime' by Sky News Analytical storyYemen
Nightmare in Nigeria
A conflict waged on the lives of women and children by Reuters
Resistance smolders
as Sagaing burns by Radio Free Asia
The Truth About Afghanistan's Zero Unit Night Raids by ProbublicaStory
20 Days in Mariupol by the Associated PressStoryUkraine
Breaking Ghouta by the Atlantic CouncilReportSyria
Is It Time to Call Putin's War in Ukraine Genocide by Newyorker Opinion StoryUkraine
The Hidden Genocide. The story of a people fleeing the land where they were born – the Muslim Rohingya of Myanmar by AlJazeeraStoryMyanmar
Restitutng evidence of genocide reparations in German Colonial Namibia by Reuters StoryNamibia
Arising from The Ashes
A Multiple Case Study of Post-genocide Situation of Yezidi Women In Kurdistan And Germany by Golala Kamangar
OHCHR Assessment of human rights concerns in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China ( UN report)UN reportChina
Command structure
The Afghan Files by the ABC StoryAfghanistan
Batons and Blood: The Bosnian Music School That Became a Brutal Jail by DetektorStoryBosnia
Report on Torture and Cruel, Inhuman, and Degrading Treatment of Prisoners at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba by the Center of Constitutional RightsReportCuba
Tracing war criminals
Iran: Catching a Killer by the BBC StoryIran
How Myanmar forces burned, looted and killed in a remote village by Reuters StoryMyanmar
Nazi Capt. Erich Priebke: 'An Order Was an Order' by abc News StoryGermany
Russian army officer admits: 'Our troops tortured Ukrainians' by The BBC StoryUkraine
Caught on Camera, Traced by Phone: The Russian Military Unit That Killed Dozens in Bucha by The New York TimesStoryUkraine
Collecting and Archiving Evidence
How Bellingcat collects, verifies and archives digital evidence of war crimes in Ukraine by Bellingcat AnalysisUkraine
Reflecting on War Crimes and Justice by Woolf InstitutePodcast
TitlePublished bySummary
15 Tips for Investigating War CrimesGIJNThe former BBC investigative journalist Manisha Ganguly shares her tips on investigating war crimes.
How to Use Data Journalism to Cover War and ConflictGIJNTips and tools for using data journalism to analyze information and better report on war and conflict around the world.
Tool for Sexual and gender-based violence investigation/documentationInstitute for International Criminal InvestigationsTool for SGBV-investigation/documentation trainers: training materials accompanying the International Protocol on the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence in Conflict (March 2017 edition)
Guidelines for Investigating Conflict-Related Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Against Men and BoysInstitute for International Criminal InvestigationsIICI has developed guidelines for investigating conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence against men and boys. They were published in early 2017. The guidelines have been developed for a range of professionals, from international criminal investigators and prosecutors to national police officers, UN human rights officers and local human rights reporters.
Guidelines on investigating violations of IHLInternational Committee of the Red CrossOn this page, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) compiles resources, guidelines on how to investigate the international law violations and documenting the potential human rights crimes.
Guide for Journalists on How to Document International Crimes
Centre for Law and DemocracyThis Guide aims to provide simple, accessible advice to journalists (and editors) who capture information which appears to be evidence of international crimes. The Guide offers to support journalists when they happen to become engaged in events which may involve international crimes.
IHL Resources for Media ProfessionalsICRCBy knowing and referencing IHL (International humanitarian law), journalists not only enhance their reporting and foster better safety for themselves on the ground, but they also promote a better understanding of armed conflict situations, humanitarian crises, and the work done by the ICRC and other humanitarian organizations.
Reporting Justice: A Handbook on Covering War Crimes CourtsInstitute for War & Peace ReportingThis handbook is intended for journalists undertaking one of the most challenging, important and potentially rewarding of tasks: reporting on the trials of war crimes suspects or investigating war crimes on the ground.
Resources for Reporters and Editors Covering the Conflict in UkraineThe Dart CenterThese resources aim to help journalists and editors covering the fast-developing conflict in Ukraine.
Media Professionals and International Humanitarian LawThe British Institute of International and Comparative LawThis handbook and field guide were the result of a project undertaking research into the legal position of media professionals in armed conflict. The research examined how International Humanitarian Law (IHL) protects the media in conflict zones. It also considered the IHL responsibilities of those media professionals that report from armed conflict.
Interviewing Victim-Survivors of ViolenceZero TolerenceVictim-survivors of violence have experienced trauma, and this can make it very difficult to talk about their experiences. These tips will help you work with victim-survivors respectfully so that you get the best possible story and give the victim-survivor an opportunity for their story to be shared.
Reporting Justice HandbookInstitute For War & Peace ReportingA Handbook for Journalists introduces you to the various kinds of courts in which war crimes are tried; gives an outline of the history of the courts; explains the body of international law under which the courts operate; details how war crimes trials work; and explores the actual process of reporting both in the courts and on the ground.
Data-driven environmental decision-making and action in armed conflictHumanitarian Law and PolicyA digital revolution through a myriad of earth observation data and open-source investigations is reshaping our understanding of the environmental causes and consequences of armed conflicts. From spatio-temporal analysis to near-real time monitoring of conflicts and resulting harm from scorched earth tactics, environmental data can quickly be incorporated in humanitarian action and reconstruction efforts. In other words, the scope and severity of environmental damage in conflict is now better understood and more foreseeable. How can this transformative development influence military conduct to strengthen the protection of civilians and the environment in armed conflict?
In this post and as part of the ICRC series on war, law and the environment with the Conflict and Environment Observatory, Wim Zwijnenburg, project leader on Humanitarian Disarmament at PAX and contributor to Bellingcat, outlines how remote environmental data collection and field research is used and incorporated in international advocacy to boost the momentum for mainstreaming a robust environmental, peace and security agenda and ultimately reduce environmental damage in conflict.

Books, Academic Papers and Podcasts

Book titleAuthorSummary
War Crimes and Just WarLarry MayLarry May argues that the best way to understand war crimes is as crimes against humanness rather than as violations of justice. He shows that in a deeply pluralistic world, we need to understand the rules of war as the collective responsibility of states that send their citizens into harm's way, as the embodiment of humanity, and as the chief way for soldiers to retain a sense of honour on the battlefield. Throughout, May demonstrates that the principle of humanness is the cornerstone of international humanitarian law, and is itself the basis of the traditional principles of discrimination, necessity, and proportionality. He draws extensively on the older Just War tradition to assess recent cases from the International Tribunal for Yugoslavia as well as examples of atrocities from the archives of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
War Crimes, War Criminals, and War Crimes Trials An Annotated Bibliography and Source BookNorman E. Tutorow, Karen Winnovich 4,500 entries, annotated, mostly English and German with some material in other European languages. Includes books, articles, dissertations, microfilms and tapes, and information on the location of documents. Sections IV-VI (pp. 105-256) deal with war crimes in Europe during World War II, the Holocaust, and concentration camps (listing 34 specific camps apart from the general material). Section IX (pp. 283-342) is devoted to the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal, and section XII (pp. 408-428) lists material on the Eichmann trial in 1961.
Crimes of War: What the Public Should KnowEditors: David Rieff, Kenneth Anderson, Roy Gutman
Contributors: David Rieff, Roy Gutman
For everyone who wants to become better informed about the news, this book lays out the benchmarks for monitoring the watchdogs and governments. Published to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the Geneva Conventions, it illustrates what is legal in war and what is not.
Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to DarfurBen KiernanFor thirty years, Ben Kiernan has been deeply involved in the study of genocide and crimes against humanity. He has played a key role in unearthing confidential documentation of the atrocities committed by the Khmer Rouge. His writings have transformed our understanding not only of twentieth-century Cambodia but also of the historical phenomenon of genocide. Kiernan examines outbreaks of mass violence from the classical era to the present, focusing on worldwide colonial exterminations and twentieth-century case studies including the Armenian genocide, the Nazi Holocaust, Stalin's mass murders, and the Cambodian and Rwandan genocides. He identifies connections, patterns, and features that in nearly every case gave early warning of the catastrophe to come: racism or religious prejudice, territorial expansionism, and cults of antiquity and agrarianism. The ideologies that have motivated perpetrators of mass killings in the past persist in our new century, says Kiernan. He urges that we heed the rich historical evidence with its telltale signs for predicting and preventing future genocides.
Investigating Organised Crime and War Crimes: A Personal Account of a Senior Detective in Kosovo, Iraq and BeyondAnthony NottTony Nott retired from the Dorset Police in 2002 at the rank of superintendent. He had spent most of his service as a detective, and had been involved in the investigation of a number of murder cases and other serious crimes. In 2000 he led the British forensic team on exhumations in Kosovo and describes the horror and brutality carried out by Serb paramilitaries. He then worked in Bosnia, Iraq, Israel, and Palestine.
The Practical Guide to Humanitarian LawFrançoise Bouchet-SaulnierWritten from the perspective of victims and those who provide assistance to them, the Practical Guide presents the rules of humanitarian law applicable to the protection and assistance of victims of conflicts and crisis in accessible and reader-friendly alphabetical entries.
It analyzes how international humanitarian law has evolved in the face of new challenges to international peace and human security related to the war on terror, new forms of armed conflict and humanitarian action, the emergence of international criminal justice, and the reshaping of fundamental rules in a multipolar world.
An unprecedented work, intended for journalists and citizens, policy makers and opinion leaders, relief workers, members of humanitarian organizations and practitioners, war leaders and serviceme.
You will find here all the entries of the Practical Guide, regularly updated. The website is intended to be simple to use, interactive and didactic. In order to provide intuitive navigation, each entry is integrated into a broader category, a search engine is available and you will also find an index of convention and ratifications.
The Fall of Berlin 1945Antony BeevorThe book provides a comprehensive and detailed account of the final stages of World War II in Europe, focusing on the Battle of Berlin and the subsequent fall of the German capital to the Soviet forces in 1945.
Antony Beevor vividly portrays the intense and brutal battles that took place during the Soviet offensive on Berlin, highlighting the harrowing experiences of both soldiers and civilians caught in the crossfire. He delves into the strategic decisions made by the commanders on both sides and the political complexities that influenced the outcome of the conflict.
The book also explores the impact of the war on ordinary civilians, especially the women who suffered immensely during the city's fall. Beevor offers a gripping narrative of the final days of Hitler's regime, the atrocities committed by both sides, and the ultimate collapse of the Nazi government.
Armed Conflict and Environmental DamageWing Commander Dr U C JhaArmed conflict and military activities have serious adverse impacts on the environment. Modern weaponry, troop movements, landmines, hazardous military waste, and the destruction of forests for military use are a few sources of harm to the environment both during armed conflict and peacetime military activities. Ecological assaults in combat areas are often kept a secret by the government, resulting in even greater humanitarian and environmental harm. Environmental degradation is increasingly being recognized as one of the most significant challenges of the 21st century and its effects are being felt worldwide. Both domestic and international legislations have been inadequate in mitigating the impact of military activities.
This book provides details of the environmental destruction wreaked during international and non-international armed conflicts and argues that the existing legal regime for the protection of the environment during armed conflict requires substantial modification. It puts forward the view that though it is inconceivable to impose an absolute ban on environmental damage during military operations, strengthening and clarifying the existing laws protecting the environment in times of conflict, and enforcing environment-friendly practices among military forces could go a long way in protecting natural assets of our earth.
Monitoring War-Generated Environmental Security Using Remote Sensing: A ReviewGordana Kaplan, Tatjana Rashid, Mateo Gasparovic, Andrea Pietrelli, Vincenzo FerraraThe negative impact humans have on the environment directly affects the environmental security. Over the years, it has been proven that wars make drastic and sometimes unrecoverable environmental damage. Remote sensing has played a main role in providing necessary data for spatiotemporal analysis. This paper reviews remote sensing implementation of war activities for environmental monitoring. This review is timely due to the exponentially increasing number of works published in recent years. This paper's main objective is to locate the papers and find geographic link, sensor use, and environmental degradation type. Following a discussion of remote sensing's capabilities, this overview illustrates numerous environmental damages caused by military operations in various world places. Our study found that wars have a detrimental influence on the ecosystem across the world, with major reasons being forest loss, oil spills, and urban growth. According to the findings, remote sensing, particularly middle-resolution satellite images, is extensively and successfully employed for environmental security monitoring. The rehabilitation of a deteriorated environment should be one of the key areas of future study.
Solving the jigsaw of conflict-related environmental damage: Utilizing open-source analysis to improve research into environmental health risksWim Zwijnenburg, David Hochhauser, Omar Dewachi, Richard Sullivan, Vinh-Kim NguyenInvestigation of the environmental impacts of armed conflict has been made easier in recent years with the development of new and improved methods for documenting and monitoring environmental damage and pollution. For decades, research into conflict-linked environmental damage and its links to human health have been overlooked and research underfunded, hindering a complete humanitarian response and effective post-conflict reconstruction. Recent developments in the field of open-source investigation have shown promising results due to the increased use of mobile phones, access to the internet and freely available methods for remote observation by satellite.
The Core ICC TextsInternational Criminal CourtThe core legal texts are the seven documents that together form the basis of the Court’s legal framework: the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Statute), the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, the Elements of Crimes, the Regulations of the Court, the Regulations of the Registry, the Regulations of the Office of the Prosecutor and the Code of Professional Conduct for counsel. The most important of these, and first to be adopted and enter into force, was the Statute, following which the remaining six texts entered into force at various points during the Court’s history. All can be amended according to their own particular amendment procedure.
Using Data to Visualize the Impacts of Conflict on the EnvironmentWim Zwijnenburg on Using Data to Visualize the Impacts of Conflict on the EnvironmentsWim Zwijnenburg (A Humanitarian Disarmament Program Leader for the Dutch Peace Organization, PAX) is interviewed on this podcast. Wim discusses how to use remote sensing data and open source information to gain a better understanding of conflict and its impact on the natural environment.

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